WHY REFERENCE?

Referencing, or the process of acknowledging your research and cited sources, is a requirement of academic work. Referencing is important for many reasons, namely to:

  • avoid plagiarism,
  • provide academic integrity to your work,
  • show the depth and breadth of your research/reading and in turn, to demonstrate your understanding of the topic at hand, and
  • give credibility to your arguments/opinions.

WHEN YOU SHOULD REFERENCE:

Anytime that you have found information for your assessment that:

  • is not common knowledge, or
  • you did not create yourself,
  • you should reference the References

 

Generally, the College uses the Harvard Anglia Referencing Style, also known as the author-date system. However, as there are a few subjects – especially in Year 11 and 12 – that require a different style to be utilised. As such, you SHOULD NOT assume that you are to use Harvard; you should check with your subject teacher before beginning referencing.

When using the Harvard Anglia Style, the author’s name, date, and page number are placed in the text directly following the reference with a detailed description of the author’s work contained in a list at the end. Below is a diagram to outline the main components of the Harvard Anglia Style:

There are many online guides that can assist you with Harvard Anglia Referencing (and other styles), including:

  • Anglia Ruskin University Library Referencing Guides: https://library.aru.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm
  • Diocese of Oxford Harvard Guide: https://www.oxanglican.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/ HarvardRefGuideKBGAug2014website.pdf
  • Charles Sturt University – Academic Referencing Tool (APA style only): https://apps.csu.edu.au/reftool/

Whatever referencing system you are required to use, the most important rule for referencing (aside from following the style guide) is to BE CONSISTENT.

Referencing Lists and Bibliographies – Harvard Anglia

A Bibliography/List of References is an alphabetical list by author or title at the end of your assignment.

It is necessary to acknowledge other peoples’ work quoted or paraphrased in your assignment and to show the extent you researched the topic. The information provided in the list assists the reader in locating these sources.

You will need to write down the details of each information source (e.g. book, journal, newspaper article, encyclopaedia, CD Rom, Internet source, TV broadcast, DVD) as you access them, so your Bibliography/ List of References will be complete. It is important to keep a record of all information sources, even if you do not directly cite them in your assignment but have used them for background research.

In the Harvard Anglia Referencing system, there are two different types of reference records:

  1. Reference list/list of references: is a list of sources that you have cited/quoted in your assignment.
  2. Bibliography: is a list of works cited within the assignment AS WELL AS works that were not cited but were used to develop knowledge and generate ideas about the topic.

It is important to clarify with your teacher whether they would like a Reference List or a Bibliography.

Below is a brief outline the structure of commonly used texts in the Bibliography/List of References within the Harvard Anglia Style:

BIBLIOGRAPHY   EXAMPLES:

Book – one author

Adams-Smith, P., 1978. The ANZACS. Melbourne: Thomas Nelson.

Book – two or three authors

Boone, L. &. Kurtz D., 1992. Contemporary Marketing. 7th edition ed. Hinsdale: Dryden Press.

Print Newspaper Article

Slapper, G., 2005. Corporate manslaughter: new issues for lawyers. The Times, 3 Sep. p.4b.

Play text

Shakespeare, W., 1976. Macbeth. Edited by Andrews, R. and Sorrenson, T. eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Film

Farenheit 9/11. 2004. [Film] Directed by Michael Moore. America: Dog Eat Dog Films.

Broadcasts – Television Episode

The day of the Doctor, 2014. Doctor Who, 50th anniversary episode series. [TV programme]. BBC, BBC 1, 23 November 2013.

Website

University of Reading, 2020. Managing references: Word’s References tool. [Online]

Available at: https://libguides.reading.ac.uk/managing-references [Accessed 04 August 2020].

Online Journal Article

Cary, C., 2011. Bedside manner. Medical Times, 88(13), pp.13–24.

Online Image

Coca Cola, 2020. Coke can designs. [image online] Available at: <https://cocacola.com/planthecan> [Accessed 9 May 2020].

Different types of in-text references

An in-text reference is literally as its name suggests: a reference that is cited in the text of the assignment. In-text references generally fall under two different types:

Direct Quotes: these are where you are directly quoting an extract from a source. For all direct quotes you must provide a page number for where the quote was found in addition to the author and publication date. You should also ensure that you introduce the quote and discuss its relevance.

Otherwise, the quote will not be effective in proving the point you are trying to make. It is important to note that direct quotes are formatted differently based on their length.

Direct quotes that are 30 words or less occur within the paragraph of the assignment and are contained within quotation marks.

For example:

The library is the most important part of the school; it is the hub where information and ideas live and is the place where students can come to relax and escape. The CEO of ‘Good Schools Australia’, James Smith, recognises this stating: ‘a good library is the heart of the school. Take away the library and you take away the life source (2018, p.3).’

Direct quotes that are 30+ words are placed on a new line and are indented (usually by 1 inch). These are not contained within quotation marks.

For example:

The library is the most important part of the school; it is the hub where information and ideas live and is the place where students can come to relax and escape. The CEO of ‘Good Schools Australia’, James Smith, recognises this stating:

a good library is the heart of the school. Take away the library and you take away the life source. One only need to look at the range of services and spaces provided by the library to see this as truth: physical and digital resources; hardware and software; reading, research, collaborative and maker spaces; and helpful staff are just the beginning (2018, p.3).

In-direct quote/paraphrase: an in-direct quote occurs when you have made reference to an idea or information from a source but have done so in your own words. You still have to reference these ideas because they are not your own work. Generally, for an in-direct quote, you are still required to provide the author, year of publication and page number, and they occur within the structure of the paragraph in which they are contained.

For example:

In recent times, the status of the library as the hub of a school has been recognised due to the litany of services and resources that they provide (Smith 2018, p.3)

Referencing Tools and Generators

While you can format your references manually following the style guide in your diary or on one of the websites provided, there are many digital tools that take the hard work out of referencing.

However, you will find that many of the free, online tools (such as citethisforme, mybib andHarvard referencing generator) do not provide reliable results. As such, St Joseph’s College requires students to use the Referencing Tool contained within Microsoft Word. This tool ensures that students are able to format their references easily, correctly and consistently within the existing assignment document.

Microsoft provides a handy guide on how to use the tool here – https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/ office/create-a-bibliography-citations-and-references-17686589-4824-4940-9c69-342c289fa2a5 – but the photos and steps below give a quick overview also.

  1. Within the document in which you are writing your response, click on the “References” tab.
  2. Select “Harvard” in the “Style” drop down menu.
  3. Click the “Manage Sources” button.
  4. When the “Source Manager” pop-up appears, select “new” and a “Create Source” pop-up willopen.
  5. Select the “Type of Source” in the drop-down menu at the top of the page.
  6. Input the information for your research source into the required fileds.
  7. Click the “Ok” button and you will be taken back to the “Source Manager” pop-up.
  8. Click on the source entry that you have just completed where it appears in the “Master List” on the left of the Check that the citation looks correct in the “Preview” section at the bottom of the box.
  9. Click on the “Copy” button to add this source to your “Current List”.
  10. Click the “Close” button.

  1. To add an in-text reference: with your cursor following the quoted or paraphrased information, got to the “References” tab and click the “Insert Citation” This will drop down a copy of the “Current List” of sources. Click on the relevant source to insert the in-text reference and then add the page number (if required).
  2. To add a Reference List or Bibliography: Place your cursor where you would like the Reference List/Bibliography to appear (at the end of your document) and got to the “References” tab and click the “Bibliography” drop down This will present you with options for the type of citations list that you require. Select the one that you need (either: Bibliography or References) and this will automatically create it in the place where your cursor sits.

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